你知道新视野大学英语4：Unit4 TextB将什么内容吗?下面是yjbys小编为大家带来的新视野大学英语4：Unit4 TextB(课文+译文)的知识，欢迎阅读。
What nature is telling you
1.Let"s sit down here, all of us, on the open prairie, where we can"t see a highway or a fence, free from the debris of the city. Let"s have no blankets to sit on, but let our bodies converge with the earth, the surrounding trees and shrubs. Let"s have the vegetation for a mattress, experiencing its texture, its sharpness and its softness. Let us become like stones, plants, and trees. Let us be animals, think and feel like animals.
2.This is my plea: Listen to the air. You can hear it, feel it, smell it, taste it. We feel it between us, as a presence presiding over the day. It is a good way to start thinking about nature and talking about it. To go further, we must rather talk to it, talk to the rivers, to the lakes, to the winds as to our relatives.
3.You have impaired our ability to experience nature in the good way, as part of it. Even here we are conscious that somewhere beyond the marsh and its cranes, somewhere out in those hills there are radar towers and highway overpasses. This land is so beautiful and strange that now some of you want to make it into a national park. You have not only contaminated the earth, the rocks, the minerals, all of which you call "dead" but which are very much alive; you have even changed the animals, which are part of us, changed them into vulgar zoological mutations, so no one can recognize them.
4.There is power in an antelope, so you let it graze within your fences. But what power do you see in a goat or sheep, prey animals with no defenses, creatures that hold still while you slaughter them? There was great power in a wolf, even in a fox. You have inverted nature and turned these noble animals into miniature lap dogs. Nature is bound by your ropes and whips and is obedient to your commands. You can"t do much with a cat, so you fix it, alter it, declaw it, and even cut its vocal cords so that you can experiment on it in a laboratory without being disturbed by its cries.
5.You have also made all types of wild birds into chickens - creatures with wings so impaired that they cannot fly. There are farms where you breed chickens for breast meat. Those birds are kept in low, repressive cages, forced to be hunched over all the time, which makes the breast muscles very big. One loud noise and the chickens go mad, killing themselves by flying against the walls of their cages. Having to spend all their lives stooped over makes an unnatural, crazy, no-good bird. It also makes unnatural, detached, no-good human beings.
6.That"s where you"ve fooled yourselves. You have not only altered, declawed, and deformed your winged and four-legged cousins; you have done it concurrently to yourselves. You inject Botox, or use plastic surgery, synthetic make-up and countless drugs. You have filtered and remolded humans into executives sitting in boardrooms, into office workers, into time-clock punchers. Your homes are filled with families disconnected from one another but tied to one great entity, television.
7.Watch the ashes, don"t smoke, you"ll stain the curtains. Watch the goldfish bowl. Don"t lean your head against the wallpaper; your hair may be greasy. Don"t spill liquor on that table: You"ll peel off its delicate finish. You should have wiped your boots; the floor was just cleaned. Don"t, don"t, don"t ..." That is absurd! We weren"t made to endure this type of repression. You live in prisons which you have built for yourselves, calling them "homes", offices, factories.
8.Sometimes i think that even our pitiful small houses are better that your luxury mansions. Strolling a hundred feet to the outhouse on a clear wintry night, through mud or snow, that is one small link with nature. Or in the summer, in the back country, taking your time, listening to the humming of the insects or the flapping of birds’ wings, the sun warming your bones through the nodding branches of trees; you don’t even have that pleasure of coexistence with nature anymore.
9.You subscribe to the belief that everything must be germ free. No smells! Not even the good, natural man and woman odors. Eradicate the smell from under your armpits, from your skin. Rub it out,and then spray some botanical odor on yourself,stuff you can spend a lot of money on,ten dollars an ounce,so you know this has to smell good.Why do you keep such a distance from your bodies’ functions,cavities and smells that you’ve alienated yourselves from the natural world,of which you are an integral part?
10.I think you are so afraid and intolerant of the world around you.You deplore the natural world;you don’t want to see,feel,smell,or hear it.The feelings of rain and snow on your face,being numbed by an icy wind and warmed back up by a smoking fire,coming out of a hot sweat bath and plunging into a cold stream,these things are the spice of life,but you don’t want them anymore.
11.You’re cage dwellers,living in boxes which shut out the hot humidity of the summer and the chill of winter,living inside a body that no longer has a scent.You’re hearing the noise form the hi-fi instead of listening to the sounds of nature.You’re watching actors on TV having a make-believe experience when you no longer experience anything for yourself.That’s your way.It’s no good.
Unit 1 Are You a 1960s Type Student? 大学已不再特别了
If you can remember anything about the 1960s, you weren"t really there," so the saying goes. It may be true for those who spent their college years in a haze of marijuana smoke. But there is one thing everyone remembers about the 1960s: Going to college was the most exciting and stimulating experience of your life.
In the 1960s, California"s colleges and universities had transformed the state into the world"s seventh largest economy. However, Berkeley, the University of California"s main campus, was also well-known for its student demonstrations and strikes, and its atmosphere of political radicalism. When Ronald Reagan ran for office as governor of California in 1966, he asked if Californians would allow "a great university to be brought to its knees by a noisy, dissident minority". The liberals replied that it was the ability to tolerate noisy, dissident minorities which made universities great.
On university campuses in Europe, mass socialist or communist movements gave rise to increasingly violent clashes between the establishment and the college students, with their new and passionate commitment to freedom and justice. Much of the protest was about the Vietnam War. But in France, the students of the Sorbonne in Paris managed to form an alliance with the trade unions and to launch a general strike, which ultimately brought about the resignation of President de Gaulle.
It wasn"t just the activism that characterized student life in the 1960s. Everywhere, going to college meant your first taste of real freedom, of late nights in the dorm or in the Junior Common Room, discussing the meaning of life. You used to have to go to college to read your first forbidden book, see your first indie film, or find someone who shared your passion, for Jimi Hendrix or Lenny Bruce. It was a moment of unimaginable freedom, the most liberating in your life:
But where"s the passion today? What"s the matter with college? These days political, social and creative awakening seems to happen not because of college, but in spite of it. Of course, it"s true that higher education is still important. For example, in the UK, Prime Minister Blair was close to achieving his aim of getting 50 per cent of all under thirties into college by 2010 (even though a cynic would say that this was to keep them off the unemployment statistics). Yet college education is no longer a topic of great national importance. Today, college is seen as a kind of small town from which people are keen to escape. Some people drop out, but the most apathetic stay the course because it"s too much effort to leave.
Instead of the heady atmosphere of freedom which students in the1960s discovered, students today are much more serious. The British Council has recently done research into the factors which help international students decide where to study. In descending order these are: quality of courses, employability prospects, affordability, personal security issues, lifestyle, and accessibility. College has become a means to an end, an opportunity to increase one"s chances on the employment market, and not an end in itself, which gives you the chance to imagine, just for a short while, that you can change the world.
The gap between childhood and college has shrunk, and so has the gap between college and the real world. One of the reasons may be financial. In an uncertain world, many children rely on their parents" support much longer than they used to. Students leaving university in the 21st century simply cannot afford to set up their own home because it"s too expensive. Another possible reason is the communications revolution. Gone are the days when a son or daughter rang home once or twice a term. Today students are umbilically linked to their parents by their cell phones. And as for finding like-minded friends to share a passion for obscure literature or music, well, we have the Internet and chat rooms to help us do that.
"Bliss was it in that dawn to be alive,
But to be young was very heaven!"
Wordsworth may have written these lines about the French Revolution; but they were also true for the students of the 1960s. So why aren"t they true for the students of today?
Unit 2 This is Sandy 这位是桑迪
I love it when my friends introduce me to new people, although I never let on. I love the proud and honorable expression they wear when they say “This is Sandy — she"s deaf”, as if I were evidence of their benevolence. I also love the split-second shocked expression on the new people, the hasty smiles and their best imitations of what they think of as their “normal faces”. If they do the ritual well enough I turn my head ever so slightly and tuck my hair behind one of my ears, whichever one"s closer to them. They never fail to say something nice about my pink hearing aids, while my regular friends beam on.
I"m thinking of starting a hearing aid collection, actually. They"d make better accessories than earrings: I once saw a catalog for clip-on hearing aids and hearing aid covers, and the products were most definitely fashion statements in various shapes and hues. It"d be like the exquisitely expensive handbag Esther"s dad got her when we were in high school. The rest of us could only admire, but could not, imitate, because our dads weren’t rich enough to spoil us that way. And now, only I can wear hearing aids: My friends can do nothing but gush.
To be honest, I quite like my deafness. It wasn"t easy the first few years after the car accident and the stupid exploding airbag, but now it"s become something that makes me special among my friends. None of my close friends are hearing-impaired; simply because I wasn’t born deaf. By the time I lost my hearing; I"d already accumulated a fixed circle of people, and they mostly rushed to participate in the drama.
You know how when you talk about your friends, you refer to them as Drew the Bartender, Carol the Feminist, Greg the Guy Who Can Knot a Cherry Stem with His Tongue and so on? I"m Sandy the Deaf Girl. I like it. I don’t have any other particularly outstanding traits or skills. Never did.
It"s more than just standing out; too: I"m sure a lot of important events in my life wouldn"t have happened or worked out quite the same way if I weren"t wearing pink hearing aids. For example, the thing with Colin.
I first met Colin at an apartment party. When Carol the Feminist introduced us to each other, I tucked my hair behind both my ears and leaned closer, not because he did the ritual particularly well; but because he was a stud: You should have seen his recovery smile after the inevitable surprise.
We went in search of drinks after the handshakes, and somewhere between what was functioning as the wine bar and the couch, we lost Carol.
“Do you usually read lips like this? Or do you sign, too?” he asked after a while.
“I mostly just read lips because it was easier to pick up than signing, although that"s not the only reason I was staring at your lips," I told him.
He laughed. We talked more, and then the host upped the music volume and dimmed the lights for the “dance floor”; and I had to lean in much, much closer to be able to continue reading his lips in the semi-darkness. And read his lips I did.
We did the usual and exchanged numbers, and a week later Colin did the unthinkable and called. We went out, satisfied ourselves that the other person still looked good in sober daylight, and read more lips. Within two months Colin and I were dating.
Unit 3 Stolen Identity 窃取的身份
“Frank never went to pilot school, medical school, law school, ... because he"s still in high school.”
That was the strapline of the 2002 film Catch Me If You Can, which tells the story of Frank Abagnale, Jr. (Leonardo DiCaprio), a brilliant young master of deception who at different times impersonated a doctor, a lawyer, and an airplane pilot, forging checks worth more than six million dollars in 26 countries. He became the youngest man to ever make the FBI’s most-wanted list for forgery. Hunted and caught in the film by fictional FBI agent Carl Hanratty (Tom Hanks), Abagnale later escaped. He eventually became a consultant for the FBI where he focused on white-collar crime.
It"s a great film, but could it happen in real life? In fact, Catch Me If You Can is based on the true story of Frank Abagnale, whose career as a fraudster lasted about six years before he was caught, who escaped from custody three times (once through an airplane toilet), and who spent a total of six years in prison in France, Sweden and the US. He now runs a consultancy advising the world of business how to avoid fraud. He has raised enough money to pay back all his victims, and is now a multi-millionaire.
Since 2003, identity theft has become increasingly common. Few people could imagine how important things like taking mail to the post office and not leaving it in the mailbox for pickup, shredding documents instead of throwing them out with the trash, even using a pen costing a couple of bucks, have become to avoid life-changing crimes.
More and more people are becoming anonymous victims of identity theft. We spend many hours and dollars trying to recover our name, our credit, our money and our lives. We need to look for different ways to protect ourselves. We can improve our chances of avoiding this crime, but it will never go away.
It"s not just a list of do"s and don"ts, we need to change our mindset. Although online banking is now commonplace, there"s a significant group of people in the country — the baby boomers, 15 per cent of the population —who still prefer to use paper. What"s more, 30 per cent of cases of fraud occur within this group. A check has all the information about you that an identity thief needs. If you use a ballpoint pen, the ink can be removed with the help of a regular household
chemical and the sum of money can be changed. More than 1.2 million bad checks are issued every day, more than 13 per second.
Check fraud is big business ... and growing by 25 per cent every year. Criminals count on our mistakes to make their jobs easier. So how can we prevent identity theft before it happens to us?
Take a few precautions. Don"t leave your mail in your mailbox overnight or over the weekend. Thieves wait for the red flag to go up, so they can look through your outgoing mail for useful personal information or checks. Use a gel pen for checks and important forms, the ink is trapped in the fiber of the paper, and it can’t be removed with chemicals: Also, shred or tear up all documents which contain personal information before you put them in the trash.
Remember that there are plenty of online opportunities for thieves to create a false identity based on your own. We’re all aware of the risks to personal information on computer databases by hacking and Trojan horses. But choosing someone and doing a Google search can also yield large amounts of personal information, and so can online social networking sites such as MySpace, Facebook and Bebo. And just as we take our pocketbook with us when we leave the office to go to the bathroom, it"s also worth logging off your computer to avoid opportunistic theft.
Finally, if you get robbed in a more traditional way — in the street—canceling your credit cards is obviously the first thing to do. But don"t forget that even after they’re reported lost, they can be used as identification to acquire store cards ... and you get the criminal record.
Identity fraud can go on for years without the victim’s knowledge. There is no escaping the fact that right now fraudsters are finding identity crime all too easy. If you haven’t had your identity stolen, it"s only because they haven’t got to you yet. Your turn will come.
Unit 4 The death of Newspaper 报纸的末日？
For years it started the day for millions of people: the sound of the newspaper hitting the front door, the window or the neighbor"s dog. With a cup of coffee, maybe some breakfast, the ritual of reading the newspaper was the quiet before the storm, a moment of pleasure and peace before the working day began.
But all over the English-speaking world, newspaper editors are facing the same problem: Circulation has declined, as more and more readers turn to the Internet for their news. This means that the revenue from advertising is also declining, and the cover price of the newspaper is rising, so they can make the same amount of money. And of course, a price-sensitive product like a newspaper could lose readers, and the vicious circle continues. So what does the future hold? Is it the death of the newspaper?
The decline is a long-term trend of 20 or more years, predating the Internet. Four-fifths of Americans once read newspapers. Today, it seems that fewer than half do. Among adults,
between 1990 and 2000, daily readership fell from 52.6 per cent to 37.5 per cent. Among the young, the situation is even worse: Only 19 per cent of those between the ages of 18 and 34 claim to read a daily newspaper. A mere nine per cent trusted the information the newspaper contains.
Advertising on the Internet works differently than in print. The advertiser can monitor minute by minute if their ads are working, and no longer has to rely on circulation figures. The greater number of outlets which the Internet can offer encourages ferocious competition for advertising revenue, while printing and production costs have risen remorselessly. As a result, The New York Times Company has downsized by 700 jobs among its various papers. The Baltimore Sun is closing down its foreign news bureaux. In the UK most newspapers have reduced the newspaper to tabloid size, in a bid to capture younger readers, although because "tabloid" has a connotation of "downmarket", some of the papers refer to the new size as "compact’.
All large circulation newspapers have established strong websites. The Internet provides an easy outlet for anyone with an opinion, and there"s nothing a newspaper editor likes more for reassurance about their work than feedback and opinions, as diverse as possible. Teenagers today don"t remember a time when they didn"t have the Internet, and reading a newspaper is something they only do if they have an assignment to write about the specific medium of print journalism.
It"s hard to deny the environmental impact of newspapers. Nearly four billion trees worldwide are cut down annually for paper, representing about 35 percent of all harvested trees. It has to be said that many of the trees used for paper come from special estates where they"re planted and replaced on a regular basis. Furthermore, yesterday"s newspaper is often recycled and turned back into today"s. Nevertheless, paper mills are among the worst polluters to air, water and land of any industry in the US.
But the daily or weekend newspaper is still a great tradition for many people. "Sunday wouldn"t be Sunday without the Sunday newspapers," is a comment which occurs regularly in UK-based surveys. Other opinions draw attention to the convenience of the paper over the laptop: "My newspaper"s battery never dies," "If I drop my newspaper, it doesn"t break," "The flight attendant has never told me to put my newspaper away," and, reminding us of the traditional wrapping of the UK"s national takeaway food, "You can swat flies with them, and they can still be used to wrap fish."
So maybe the newspaper won"t die without a struggle. Trends for the future of newspaper include an increased demand for local news, and the continued exploitation of lifestyle journalism, which began in the late 1980s, especially within personal finance and travel, will create new revenue streams. Some commentators recommend that, instead of dumbing down, which is the usual way of increasing one"s market share, newspapers should smarten up, that is to say, honor the principles of integrity and impartiality of their coverage. A newspaper with editorial positions which are respected by its readers will surely have more influence and prestige than the same reports read one by one on the Internet.
Moreover, the small-town newspaper will always be meaningful for the parents whose child"s photo is news for a few days. And reading the traditional Sunday newspapers in an armchair while everyone else takes the day off is going to be a hard habit to break.
But is it enough? Or will we one day see the death of the newspaper?
Unit 5 The Story of Anne Frank’s Diary 安妮·弗兰克日记的故事
“13 June 1944. Another birthday has gone by so now I"m 15. I"ve received quite a few presents, an art history book, a set of underwear, two belts, and a handkerchief, two pots of yogurt, a pot of jam and two small honey biscuits ... Peter and I have both spent years in the annexe — we often discuss the future, the past and the present, but ... I miss the real thing, and yet I know it exists.”
Anne Frank wrote these words in her now famous diary while she and her family were in hiding in "the secret annexe", a few rooms in the back of her father"s office in Amsterdam, Holland.
The Franks were in fact refugees, Jews from Germany who had emigrated to Holland, settling in Amsterdam to escape from Nazi persecution. But when, in May 1940 the German army invaded and occupied Holland, the persecution of the Dutch Jews very quickly began there too.
Like all Jews, Anne and her sister Margot were forbidden to attend school, to ride their bikes, even to travel in a car. They were only allowed to go into certain shops, and at all times they had to wear a yellow star on their clothing to show they were Jewish. The star of David, an important religious symbol, was transformed into a badge of shame by the Nazis.
By 1941, the Nazis were arresting large numbers of Jewish people, and sending them to labor camps which quickly became death camps. Otto Frank, Anne"s father, decided to conceal his family, and the family of his business partner.
The Franks went into hiding on 6 July 1942, just a few weeks after Anne started her diary, and were joined by the second family, the Van Pels a week later. For the next two years, eight people were confined to just six small rooms and could never go outside. There was rarely enough to eat, and the families lived in a state of poverty.
Throughout her time in hiding, Anne continued to write her diary. She describe the day-to-day activity in the annexe but she also wrote about her dreams and aspirations. It was very hard for her to plan for a future; she and the others knew what was happening to the Jews who had been caught.
"Our many Jewish friends and acquaintances are being taken away in droves. The Gestapo is treating them very roughly and transporting them in cattle cars to Westerbork, the big camp in Drenthe to which they"re sending all the Jews ... If it"s that bad in Holland, what must it be like in those faraway and uncivilized places where the Germans are sending them? We assume that most of them are being murdered. The English radio says they’re being gassed." —October 9, 1942
Despite being an ordinary teenager in many ways, curious, self-critical and moody, Anne was also an honest writer of considerable talent who fought for the right to live and this is what gives the diary such power:
"It"s a wonder I haven"t abandoned all of my ideals, they seem so absurd and impractical. Yet, I cling to them because I still believe in spite of everything that people are truly good at heart ...I must hold to my ideals. Perhaps the day will come when I will be able to realize them.
It"s utterly impossible for me to build my life on a foundation of chaos, suffering and death. I see the world being slowly turned into a wilderness, I hear the approaching thunder that, one day, will destroy us too, I feel the suffering of millions. And yet, when I look up at the sky, I somehow feel that everything will change for the better, that this cruelty too shall end, that peace and tranquility will return once more ... I must uphold my ideals, for perhaps the time will come when I shall be able to carry them out." — July 15, 1944
Writing these words, Anne was not displaying simple childish optimism. It was more a declaration of her principles and of the right to human dignity. The voice that comes across is of a solitary young girl writing for herself, yet at the same time it is the cry of all those innocent victims of evil whose fate was to suffer in the Second World War. That is why Anne Frank"s diary has achieved fame as the voice of the Holocaust in which six million Jews were murdered: She speaks for all of humanity.
In August 1944, the hiding place was stormed, and Nazi officers arrested everyone. They were taken to a transit camp and forced to do hard labor. From there they were taken by train to a concentration camp at Auschwitz. A month later, Anne and Margot were moved to Bergen-Belsen camp in Germany. They both died of typhus and starvation in March 1945. Anne Frank was 15, her sister was 19. Out of the eight people in hiding, Otto Frank was the only survivor, and when he found his daughter"s diary after the war, he arranged for its publication in recognition of her courage.
When Anne wrote in her diary "I hope that you will be a great support and comfort to me", she couldn"t have known that her writing would also be a support and comfort to the whole world after her death.
Unit 6 My Dream Comes True梦想成真
The rain had started to fall gently through the evening air as darkness descended over Sydney. Hundreds of lights illuminated Stadium Australia, and the noise was deafening. As I walked towards the track I glanced around me at the sea of faces in the stands, but my mind was focused. The Olympic gold medal was just minutes away, hanging tantalizingly in the distance.
My heart was beating loudly, my mouth was dry and the adrenaline was pumping. I was so close
to the realization of my childhood dream and the feeling was fantastic; it was completely exhilarating, but also terrifying. I knew I would have to push myself beyond my known limits to ensure that my dream came true.
I tried to keep composed, telling myself not to panic, to stick to the plan and run my own race. I knew the Russian girls would set off quickly — and I had to finish this race fewer than ten seconds behind the Russian athlete Yelena Prokhorova. If I could do that, the title would be mine.
I looked out along the first stretch of the 400m track and caught my breath. The 800m race had punished me so much over the years— in the World, Commonwealth and European Championships —and now it stood between me and the Olympic title.
The British supporters were cheering so loudly it seemed as if they were the only fans there. I could hear my name being called. I could hear the shouts of encouragement and the cries of hope. Union Jacks fluttered all around the vast, beautiful stadium. I felt unified with the crowd — we all had the same vision and the same dream.
My ankle was bandaged against an injury I had incurred in the long jump just a couple of hours earlier, but I shut out all thoughts of pain. I tried to concentrate on the crowd. They were so vocal. My spirits lifted and I felt composed.
I knew I would do my best, that I would run my heart out and finish the race. I felt the performer in me move in and take over. I had just two laps to run, that was all. Just two laps until the emotional and physical strain of the past two days and the last 28 years would be eclipsed by victory or failure. This race was all about survival. It"s only two minutes, I kept telling myself, anyone can run for two minutes.
The starting gun was fired, and the race began. The first lap was good, I managed to keep up with the group, but I was feeling much more tired than I usually did, and much more than I"d anticipated. Both the long, hard weeks of training that had led up to this championship, and the exhaustion from two days of grueling competition were showing in my performance. Mental and physical fatigue were starting to crush me, and I had to fight back.
Prokhorova had set the pace from the start. It was important that I didn’t let her get too far in front. I had to stay with her. At the bell I was 2.3 seconds behind her. Just one lap to go. One lap. I could do it. I had to keep going. In the final 150 meters I could hear the roar of the crowd, giving me a boost at exactly the moment I needed it the most — just when my legs were burning and I could see the gap opening between me and the Russian. Thankfully, my foot was holding out, so now it was all down to mental stamina.
Prokhorova was pulling away. I couldn"t let her get too far; I had to stay with her. I began counting down the meters I had left to run; 60m, 50m, 40m, 2om. I could see the clock. I could do it, but it would be close. Then finally the line appeared. I crossed it, exhausted. I had finished.
As I crossed the line my initial thought was how much harder the race had been than expected, bearing in mind how, only eight weeks before, I had set a new personal best of two minutes 12.2 seconds. Then my mind turned to the result. Had I done it? I thought I had. I was aware of where the other athletes were, and was sure that I"d just made it. But, until I saw it on the scoreboard, I wouldn"t let myself believe it. As I stood there, staring up and waiting for confirmation, I tried hard to keep negative thoughts from my mind - but I couldn’t help thinking, what if I have just missed out? What if I’ve been through all this, and missed out?
In the distance I could hear the commentary team talking about two days of tough competition, then I could almost hear someone say, "I think she"s done enough." The next thing I knew, Sabine Braun of Germany came over and told me I"d won. They had heard before me, and she asked what it felt like to be the Olympic champion. I smiled, still not sure.
Then, the moment that will stay with me for the rest of my life —my name in lights. That was when it all hit me. Relief, a moment of calm, and a thank you to my inner self for taking me through these two days. I felt a tingle through the whole of my body. This was how it is meant to be —arms aloft and fists clenched.
I looked out at the fans, who were waving flags, clapping and shouting with delight. I was the Olympic champion. The Olympic champion.
Unit 7 Are Animals Smarter Than We Think? 动物比我们想象的更聪明吗？
What does an elephant see when it looks in the mirror? Itself, apparently. Previously, such self-awareness was thought to be limited to humans, primates and the great celebrities of the world of animal intelligence, dolphins. At first, elephants in studies with mirrors will explore the mirror as an object. Eventually, they may realize they are looking at themselves. They will repeatedly touch a mark painted on their heads that they wouldn"t see without the mirror. Diana Reiss of Hunter College believes these are compelling signs of self-awareness.
Scientists used to believe that animals were like machines programmed to react to stimuli. They were not considered capable of feeling or thinking, and certainly not of understanding abstract concepts. However, any dog owner will disagree. They know, when they see the love in their pet"s eyes, that it has feelings. A dog can be trained to respond to commands and perform useful tasks. It can recognize different people and make choices about what to eat or which path to take. But does this mean that an animal is capable of thinking and, if so, can it be proved? Our perceptions of animals are filtered through our own human understanding of the world and we often project human feelings and thoughts onto other creatures.
One of the first scientists to try to investigate the animal mind was the British naturalist Charles Darwin. In his book The Descent of Man, published in 1871, he questioned whether higher mental abilities such as self-consciousness and memory, were limited to human beings. Darwin speculated that human and non-human minds aren"t all that different. Animals, he argued, face the same general challenges and have the same basic needs as humans: to find food and a mate, to navigate through the sky, the woods or the sea. All these tasks require the ability to problem-solve and to categorize. Birds, for example, need to be able to distinguish colors so they know when a
fruit is ripe, what is safe to eat and what is not. Knowing the shapes of predators helps them to escape danger. Having a concept of numbers helps them to keep track of their flock, and to know which individuals have a mate.
All these skills require, not just instinct, but cognitive ability, argues Irene Pepperberg, who has worked on animal intelligence since 1977.
She studied an African grey parrot called Alex from the age of one for 30 years. Parrots are well-known for their ability to imitate speech and in her experiments; Pepperberg used this talent to find out about Alex"s understanding of the world. Her aim was to teach him to reproduce the sounds of the English language so that she could then have a dialogue with him. "I thought if he learned to communicate, I could ask him questions about how he sees the world."
Memory, language, self-awareness, emotions and creativity are key indications of higher mental abilities. Scientists have, bit by bit, uncovered and documented these talents in other species. Pepperberg discovered that Alex could count, distinguish shapes, sizes, colors and materials such as wood, wool and metal. Until recently, only higher mammals, such as primates, have been thought capable of understanding concepts of "same" and "different". But parrots, like primates, live for a long time in complex societies, so abstract mental ability would seem to be a valuable survival skill for them, too.
Darwin argued that animals" minds, like their bodies, have evolved to suit their environment. He went so far as to suggest that even worms have some hint of intelligence since he observed them making judgments about the kinds of leaves they used to block their tunnels. Many scientists in the 20th century dismissed such findings as unreliable, usually influenced by anthropomorphism, in other words, judging animals by human attributes. However, the pendulum is now swinging away from thinking of animals as machines without intelligence, and back towards Darwin"s ideas. A wide range of studies on animals suggests that the roots of intelligence are deep, widespread across the animal kingdom and highly changeable.
People were surprised to find that chimpanzees and other primates were smart. They make tools. Orangutans use leaves as rain hats and protect their hands when climbing spiky trees. Scientists put this down to the fact that primates and humans share a common ancestor. What is surprising them now however, is" that intelligence doesn"t seem to be limited to those species with whom; we have a common ancestor. It appears that evolution can reinvent similar forms of consciousness indifferent species; and that to an astonishing degree, this intelligence is not reserved only for higher mammals. One vital question is thrown up by the current research: If all this is true and animals have feelings and intelligence, should it affect the way we humans treat them?
在汉语和英语两种语言中存在着许多共同之处, 在对于许多英语句子的 翻译过程中, 完全可以采取直译的方法，下面为大家分享了fame的课文翻译，一起来看看吧！
Fame is very much like an animal chasing its own tail who, when he captures it, does not knowwhat else to do but to continue chasing it. Fame and the exhilarating popularity thataccompanies it, force the famous person to participate in his or her own destruction. Ironicisn"t it?
Those who gain fame most often gain it as a result of possessing a single talent or skill:singing, dancing, painting, or writing, etc. The successful performer develops a style that ismarketed aggressively and gains some popularity, and it is this popularity that usuallyconvinces the performer to continue performing in the same style, since that is what the publicseems to want and to enjoy. But in time, the performer becomes bored singing the same songsin the same way year after year, or the painter becomes bored painting similar scenes orportraits, or the actor is tired of playing the same character repeatedly. The demand of thepublic holds the artist hostage to his or her own success, fame. If the artist attempts to changehis or her style of writing or dancing or singing, etc., the audience may turn away and look toconfer fleeting fickle fame on another and then, in time, on another, and so on and so on.
Who cannot recognize a Tennessee Williams play or a novel by John Updike or ErnestHemingway or a poem by Robert Frost or W. H. Auden or T. S. Eliot? The same is true ofpainters like Monet, Renoir, Dali or Picasso and it is true of movie makers like Hitchcock, Fellini,Spielberg, Chen Kai-ge or Zhang Yimou. Their distinctive styles marked a significant change inthe traditional forms and granted them fame and forturn, but they were not free to developother styles or forms because their audience demanded of each of them what they originallypresented. Hemingway cannot even now be confused with Henry James or anyone else, norcan Forst be confused with Yeats, etc. The unique forms each of them created, created them.No artist or performer can entirely escape the lure of fame and its promise of endlessadmiration and respect, but there is a heavy price one must pay for it.
Fame brings celebrity and high regard from adoring and loyal fans in each field of endeavor andit is heady stuff. A performer can easily come to believe that he or she is as good as his or herpress. But most people, most artists do not gain fame and fortune. What about thoseperformers who fail, or anyone who fails? Curiously enough, failure often serves as its ownreward for many people! It brings sympathy from others who are delighted not to be you, andit allows family and friends to lower their expectation of you so that you need not competewith those who have more talent and who secceed. And they find excuses and explanations foryour inability to succeed and become famous: you are too sensitive, you are not interested inmoney, you are not interested in the power that fame brings and you are not interested in theloss of privacy it demands, etc. ---all excuses, but comforting to those who fail and those whopretend not to notice the failure.
History has amply proven that some failure for some people at certain times in their lives doesindeed motivate them to strive even harder to succeed and to continue believing inthemselves. Thomas Wolfe, the American novelist, had his first novel Look Homeward, Angerrejected 39 times before it was finally published and launched his career and created his fame.Beethoven overcame his tyrannical father and grudging acceptance as a musician to becomethe greatest, most famous musician in the world, and Pestalozzi, the famous Italian educator inthe 19th century, failed at every job he ever had until he came upon the idea of teachingchildren and developing the fundamental theories to produce a new form of education.Thomas Edison was thrown out of school in fourth grade, at about age 10, because he seemedto the teacher to be quite dull and unruly. Many other cases may be found of people who failedand used the failure to motivate them to achieve, to succeed, and to become famous. But,unfortunately, for most people failure is the end of their struggle, not the beginning. There arefew, if any, famous failures.
Well then, why does anyone want fame? Do you? Do you want to be known to many peopleand admired by them? Do you want the money that usually comes with fame? Do you want themedia to notice everything you do or say both in public and in private? Do you want themhounding you, questioning you and trying to undo you? In American politics it is very obviousthat to be famous is to be the target of everyone who disagrees with you as well as of themedia. Fame turns all the lights on and while it gives power and prestige, it takes the you outof you: you must be what the public thinks you are, not what you really are or could be. Thepolitician, like the performer, must please his or her audiences and that often means sayingthings he does not mean or does not believe in fully. No wonder so few people trust politicians.But we have not answered the question at the beginning of this paragraph: why does anyonewant fame? Several reasons come to mind: to demonstrate excellence in some field; to gainthe admiration and love of many others; to be the one everyone talks about; to show familyand friends you are more than they thought you were. Probably you can list some otherreasons, but I think are reasonably common.
Is it possible to be famous and to remain true to yourself, the real you? Perhaps, but one ishard pressed to come up with the names of those who have done their thing their way andsecceeded in the fame game. Many political dissidents around the world, in particular, DawnAung Suu Kyi of Burma, is a rare exception to the rule that says maintaining unpopular viewsor unpopular attitudes or approaches in any field will destroy you. The famous Irish writerOscar Wilde, a very successful writer of stories, poems and plays, was known for his mostunusual clothing and eccentric behavior, social and sexual. This behavior brought him to theattention of the mother of a young man Oscar was intimate with and she accused him. He wasfurious about this and sued the young man"s mother which led to a trial and imprisonment fortwo years. He remained true to himself and paid a heavy price for it by being ostracized anddefamed.
Time magazine of June 17, 1996 devoted a good deal of its issue to discussing people (25 inAmerica) who are the most influential in the country in their opinion. They added a short essayon who are the most powerful people in America and no one on the first list appeared on thesecond list, and strangely enough, none of the poeple on either list was described as famous,although I think several surely are. Can we really distinguish influential people and powerfulpeople from those who are famous? Maybe, but their list of influential prople includes JerrySeinfeld the comedian and TV star, Courtney Love the singer and drug addict whose fame hascome largely through her husband Kurt Cobain, the guitarist who committed suicide, and thelist inbludes Oparh Winfrey the talk show host and Calvin Klein the clothing designer. All ofthese people are famous , but I believe, not very influential in the sense that they change theway most of us think or act. In Time magazine"s list we find a Supreme Court justice, SandraDay O"Connorm, who is no more influential or powerful than any of other justices. PresidentClinton is not considered influential (?) but is considred powerful! You decide if you thinkfamous and influential and powerful are closely related, or different.
I believe that fame and celebrity, influence and power, success and failure, reality and illusionare all somehow neatly woven into a seamless fabric we laughingly call reality. I say to thosewho desperately seek fame and fortune, celebrity: good luck. But what will you do when youhave caught your tail, your success, your fame? Keep chasing it ? If you do catch it, hang onfor dear life because falling is not as painful as landing. See you soon famous and almostfamous, wayfarers on this unbright, nonlinear planet!